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Pakistani illustrator writes to Ben Affleck on radical Islam: ‘Your heart’s in the right place but…’
Scroll Staff | Oct 27, 2014

Creator of book ‘My Chacha Is Gay’ tells American actor he shut down the opportunity for a productive dialogue on radical Islam.

Last fortnight, Gone Girl star Ben Affleck caused a storm when he got into a heated debate with US TV host Bill Maher and American author Sam Harris over their views on Islamic radicalism. Appearing on the show Real Time with Bill Maher, Affleck attacked Harris for suggesting that Islam was a “mother lode of bad ideas” and skewed Maher for maintaining that liberals fail to condemn the lack of personal freedoms, especially for women and LGBT minorities, in the Muslim world.

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An open letter to Ben Affleck

Your heart was in the right place, but…

Dear Ben,

I am writing to you today as a woman who was born and raised in Islam. I saw your discussion with Bill Maher and Sam Harris, and I must say you did me a great disservice that day. Your heart was in the right place, of course, and it was lovely of you to step up and defend ‘my people’.

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Cape Town to shut South Africa’s pro-gay mosque
24 September 2014 | BBC News Africa

South Africa’s first gay-friendly mosque, which also allows women to lead prayers, must close, a local official has told the BBC.

A City of Cape Town councillor says the newly established Open Mosque has violated municipal by-laws by not having any parking spaces.

The mosque officially opened its doors on Friday despite criticism from members of the local Muslim community.

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Lauren Isaacs | 19 September 2014

The open mosque welcomes gay people, Muslims from different sects, as well as non-Muslims.

CAPE TOWN – Friday afternoon prayers have gone ahead at the new “open mosque” despite several attempts to shut its doors.

Several protesters from the Muslim faith have gathered outside the new mosque in Wynberg.

The mosque has received widespread criticism since news broke of its launch.

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‘Open Mosque’ pioneer threatened
September 17 2014 | By Chelsea Geach

Cape Town – Bombs, murder and castration: these are the threats a Muslim academic has received over his plan to open an all-inclusive “Open Mosque” in Wynberg.

“They said they’re going to bomb the place, they’re going to kill me and they’re going to take off my private parts,” Dr Taj Hargey told the Cape Argus.

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Open Mosque in Lester Road, Wynberg
16 September 2014 | Taj Hargey

A mosque where women will lead prayers and also welcome gay people and non-muslim – this is the brainchild of Taj Hargey – a Cape Town born Oxford academic.

The Open Mosque is to open this week in Lester Road Wynberg and will have its first prayers on Friday.

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Isis doesn’t deserve to be called Islamic, Australian imams say
Australian Associated Press |, Monday 15 September 2014

‘These criminals are committing crimes against humanity and sins against God,’ grand mufti says, though national council does not support sending troops

Australian imams have called for the term “Islamic” not to be used when referring to the Islamic State (Isis) group, saying it serves only to give credibility to the group’s claims of religious authority.

There was nothing Islamic about its murderous actions, the Australian National Imams Council said, and the phrase “Islamic State” referred to an era when Muslims, Christians and Jews lived together harmoniously.

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My beautiful faith is being overtaken by the beheaders I’ve studied
By Qanta Ahmed September 5 | Qanta Ahmed, M.D., is associate professor of medicine at the State University of New York and a Ford Foundation Public Voices fellow.

I’ve seen too many executions.

I was first invited to a beheading in Saudi Arabia while working as a physician in Riyadh. It was 1999, and I was an attending intensive care specialist in an advanced medical system that valued my U.S. training. As we finished resuscitating a patient, a colleague casually said: “We’re going to Chop-Chop Square tomorrow. Do you want to see a beheading?”

He was referring to Deera, the Riyadh district surrounding its major seminary and mosque. During the week, Deera bustled with commerce, home to the finest jewelers. But on Fridays, with shops closed for Islam’s holy day, people convicted of capital crimes such as murder, rape and incest were beheaded by the sword-wielding state executioner in full public view.

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My Muslim religion has problems that need fixing
August 29, 2014 | Glenn Mohammed

I am an Australian, I am a Muslim. I am an Australian Muslim. The recent actions of the group known as Islamic State have put my faith in the spotlight as a threat to my nation and fellow Australians with whom I share the privilege of living in this great nation. It is here that I practice my faith freely.

A number of Muslim community organisations and Councils have come out in recent weeks against the Anti-Terrorism legislation proposed by the Australian Government in response to individuals who go to Iraq and Syria to fight.

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Islam’s silent majority: moderate voices drowned out by extremists
22 August 2014 | Ali Mamouri | PhD Candidate at the Institute for Social Justice at Australian Catholic University

Stretching from north Africa to east Asia, many Muslims are engaged in a life-and-death tussle with extremists who are bent on extinguishing the diversity of opinions within the Muslim community. Atrocities perpetrated by so-called Islamists grab the headlines: Boko Haram and slavery markets, the genocide of minorities and videotaped executions of westerners by Islamic State (IS) militants.

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Sunni Muslims Must Reject ISIS ‘Caliphate’: Irfan Al-Alawi
JULY 22, 2014 | by Aditya Nigam

Even as Israeli bombings and ground attacks on Gaza continue, there are no less disturbing reports of ISIS attacks on Christians, the last of whom are reportedly fleeing Mosul. One of the oldest churches has been attacked and reduced to ashes. The rise of ISIS is not only a danger signal for non Muslim or even non Sunni minorities, it represents one of the most serious threats in recent times to the entire heritage of Islam and the diversity within it as well. We reproduce below a piece by Irfan Al-Alwai argues that Sunni Muslims must reject the ISIS’ new ‘Caliphate’. Irfan Al-Alawi is the executive director of the Islamic Heritage Research Foundation and international director of Centre for Islamic Pluralism in the United States. Here are some extracts from the article:

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Bendigo woman behind anti-mosque Facebook page loses bid to stay anonymous
July 17, 2014 | Chris Johnston

A Bendigo businesswoman behind a vehement anti-mosque Facebook page has lost a tribunal bid to stay anonymous.

In a tearful and rambling appearance at the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal today, Monika Evers, a co-administrator of the Stop The Mosque in Bendigo page, claimed she had been ‘‘villified’’ online by people who supported the Bendigo mosque proposal, feared for her safety and wanted her name kept out of the media.

But VCAT deputy president Mark Dwyer said there was ‘‘insufficient evidence’’ to support her claims of being threatened and that Ms Ever’s ‘‘perception’’ of biased, pro-mosque media reporting was not grounds to have her name suppressed.

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Thursday Jul 10, 2014 has featured my TED Talk video and posted a blog post on their site.

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Why Islam matters in Indonesian politics
10 July 2014 | Pipip Ahmad Rifa’i Hasan | Lecturer in Philosophy and Religion at Paramadina University

Running for president in Indonesia seemed also to entail having to show off one’s commitment to Islam.

The 2014 presidential election featured a prominent use of Islamic cultural and ritual symbols. Both Joko Widodo and Prabowo Subianto showcased their connection to Islam through public displays of piety. Both also looked for support from Islamic political parties, religious leaders, Islamic boarding schools and mass organisations to increase their electability.

Widodo, more popularly called Jokowi, flew to Mecca three days before the presidential election on a pilgrimage, staving off smear campaigns that he was secretly a Christian of Chinese descent.

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Britain is conned into thinking women are forced to wear burqa, says British Muslim cleric
By: Cyril DixonPublished: Fri, July 4, 2014

A BRITISH Muslim cleric hit out at the face veil worn by Islamic women today by branding it an “archaic tribal rag”.

Moderate Imam Taj Hargey warned that Britain had been conned into believing that the Koran orders women to wear the burka and the niqab.

He attacked the controversial face-cover as an “un-Muslim fad” imported from Saudi Arabia and championed by hardliners.

Just days after the European Court of Human Rights upheld a French ban on the veil, he called for Britain to follow France’s lead.

Dr Hargey, Imam at the Oxford-based Muslim Educational Centre, said: “There is no Koranic mandate for female facial masks.

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Ramadan and the World Cup coincide … but it’s no big deal 
30 June 2014 | Nasya Bahfen | Senior Lecturer in the Journalism and Media Centre at Monash University

The World Cup and Ramadan – the ninth month of the Muslim year, during which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset – last clashed in 1986. This year they did so again in spectacular fashion, with both the fasting month and the tournament’s Round of 16 beginning last Saturday.

Prior to Brazil 2014, Muslims in a range of sports fasted during their regular club competitions, with seemingly little or no impact. In Australia, Sonny Bill Williams joins Hazem El Masri as rugby league stars who have fasted during an NRL season, and Bachar Houli in Aussie Rules.

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Dangerous ideas, honour killings and moral seriousness
25 June 2014 | Patrick Stokes | Lecturer in Philosophy at Deakin University

Last night, after a public outcry, the Sydney Opera House’s Festival of Dangerous Ideas pulled a presentation from its upcoming program. The talk in August by Sydney writer and Hizb ut-Tahrir representative Uthman Badar, was to have been called Honour Killings are Morally Justified.

Most of us would react to a title like that with immediate revulsion. It promises a defence of something utterly indefensible. Indeed, on his Facebook page, Badar insisted he didn’t choose the title (but did consent to it) and that it misrepresented what he’d planned to speak about:

the suggestion that I would advocate for honour killings, as understand [sic] in the west, is ludicrous.

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There’s no bigotry in challenging Islamic extremism
June 26, 2014 | Paul Monk | The Age

“Have not the Islamophobes already won the day when a person dare not speak on controversial matters because he is Muslim?” asked Simon Longstaff on Twitter last week.

That was a very strange rhetorical question in the circumstances.
He was commenting on the fact that Uthman Badar, spokesman for the radical Islamist group Hizb ut-Tahrir, had had his invitation withdrawn to speak at the Sydney Opera House on the proposition that “honour killings are morally justified”.

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Uthman Badar: both Islamophobia’s victim and unwilling accomplice
Yassir Morsi | | Thursday 26 June 2014

Islamophobia is not just bigotry or fear. It’s a frenzy that fills the gaps in our social imagination. As Badar’s cancelled talk shows, it also doesn’t require the Muslim to say anything

In the last two days we have seen an eruption of Australia’s public and moral outrage, regarding Hizb ut-Tahrir’s media spokesman, Uthman Badar, and his planned talk on morally justifying “honour” killings at Sydney’s Festival of Dangerous Ideas. In response to the planned event, which was cancelled after a massive backlash, we have yet again heard the typical Islamophobes scream the usual condemnation all over our televisions, our radios, our Twitter feeds and in The Daily Telegraph: “Kick Hizbut Outta Here.”

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Limitations on Religious Freedom in Islam: The Witness of the Qur’an and Prophetic Traditions
Abdullah Saeed, ABC RELIGION AND ETHICS 23 MAY 2014

In the face of a global trend toward religious freedom which began in the seventeenth century, Islam seems to be the only major religion to maintain that conversion away from the religion – apostasy – must be punished with death. In a number of Muslim-majority countries such as Saudi Arabia, apostasy laws and the associated death penalty still prevail.

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Queensland rejects push to make Muslim women remove burqas
Michael Safi |, Thursday 22 May 2014

Independent MP’s bill would have empowered police to require people to remove any face covering to establish their identity

The Queensland government has rejected a push by independents and minor parties to force Muslim women to remove their burqas or veils to prove their identity.

The bill, introduced by the independent MP for Nicklin, Peter Wellington, would have allowed lawyers, police, prison officers, justices of the peace and other “persons of responsibility” to require a person to remove any face covering to establish their identity.

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In Islam, there’s more than one way to be an ‘atheist’
Nesrine Malik | Monday 5 May 2014

Saudi Arabia has declared atheists to be as bad as terrorists. But does this mean those without faith cannot live happily in the Muslim world?

Saudi Arabia recently declared atheism and Islamist terrorism equal crimes in the eyes of the law. To the Saudi government, not believing in God, and fighting in his name – although polar opposites – represent the same threat, a challenge to the religious consensus. What is it about atheism that it finds so challenging? And are different types of atheism possible in the Muslim world?

Despite the prominence of the image of a hunted apostate supported by western atheists and villified by Islamic institutions, there are atheists of Muslim heritage who would not necessarily identify with this stereotype. I would make the distinction between individual atheism as a matter of belief, and the position of publicly declaring oneself atheist – or, more potently, “ex-Muslim”. The former is a personal position, the latter a political one that seeks to challenge authority.

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Muslim Women’s National Network Australia
Posted 24 March 2014

The Muslim Women’s National Network Australia is a peak body representing a network of Muslim women’s organisations and individuals throughout Australia.

We are a multicultural Muslim women’s organization. We welcome Muslim women of all ages, occupations and ethnicities to join with us in sisterhoo.

Our individual members include lawyers, corporate managers, journalists, teachers, university students and home managers. Our membership is also drawn from a broad mix of ethnic backgrounds from the Middle East, South East Asia, the Pacific Islands, Africa, Europe and America, as well as members who were born in this country.

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Quilliam Foundation
Challenging Extremism | Promoting Pluralism | Inspiring Change | Seeding Democracy

Dr Usama Hasan for BBC Radio 5 on why tougher sentencing for would-be terrorists is not the solution.  Quilliam hosts Dr Cameron Munter, former US Ambassador to Pakistan.  Quilliam opposes actions of Bangladesh’s International Crimes Tribunal.


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Man assaults Muslim woman following reports of ‘dark-skinned’ Boston bombing suspect
The Raw Story, By David Edwards, Thursday, April 18, 2013

A Muslim woman in Boston says that she was attacked by a white man on on Wednesday morning because he was apparently enraged by the Boston Marathon bombings and convinced, despite a lack of evidence, that the perpetrators were Muslim.

Heba Abolaban told Malden Patch that she and her friend, who were both wearing hijabs, were walking on Commercial Street with their children when a white male in his thirties punched her in her left shoulder.

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Don’t celebrate Anzac Day: Muslim group
April 24, 2013, Barney Zwartz, Religion editor, The Age.

Muslims should not celebrate Anzac day because it is a “superficial, jingoistic” date that marks Australian colonial aggression against the Muslim world, according to radical Muslim group Hizb ut Tahrir.

Mainstream Muslim groups rejected the group’s stance, saying Anzac day had nothing to do with religion.

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Mysterious Islamic star speaker ‘pulls out’
March 15, 2013, Vince Chadwick, The Age

An event billed as Australia’s largest ever Islamic peace conference is set to begin at Melbourne Showgrounds, but the mystery imam billed as the star attraction will not be there.

The Australian Islamic Peace Conference, which goes until Sunday, promises interfaith dialogues, musical performances and more than 20 local and international speakers, some of whom will appear over the internet.

However, organisers now say key speaker, the “Imam of Makkah” – will not attend for “personal reasons”.

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Halal food label withdrawn in Sri Lanka, AAP, March 11, 2013 9:39PM

ISLAMIC clerics have withdrawal a halal labelling system for food in Sri Lanka “in the interests of peace” after protests from Buddhist hardliners on the Indian Ocean island.
The All Ceylon Jamiyyathul Ulama (ACJU), Sri Lanka’s main body of Islamic clergy, said on Monday the halal certificate issued by them would be used only for products that are exported to Islamic countries.

“We are giving up what is important to us. We are making a sacrifice in the interest of peace and harmony,” ACJU president Mufti Rizwe said, adding they were keen to avoid any escalation of religious tensions.

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No room for Sharia law in multicultural society
BY:PATRICIA KARVELAS From: The Australian March 03, 2013 12:00AM

ISLAMIC law and polygamous marriages will be denounced as forever unacceptable in Australia in a bipartisan parliamentary report that will define what multiculturalism means for our nation, and state there must be only “one law for all”.

The report — the result of a two-year investigation into Australia’s multicultural strategy — is understood to be critical of the limited access migrants have to English language training and the lack of cultural awareness shown by employers and the federal employment recruitment agency.

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Four found guilty over sharia law whipping
ABC News, 28th February 2013

Four men have been found guilty of assault for whipping a Muslim convert as punishment under sharia law for drinking alcohol and taking drugs.

It is the first time a case like this has come before the Australian courts.

Four men broke into Christian Martinez’s Silverwater unit in Sydney’s west in 2011 and whipped him 50 times with an electrical cord in the name of religious law.

Mr Martinez was a recent convert to Islam.

The day before the attack he had drunk alcohol and taken drugs and had called his religious mentor, Wassam Faayad, to tell him.

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Cleric Man Monis loses appeal over ‘offensive’ letters to diggers’ grieving families
Malcolm Farr, National Political Editor and Adam Gartrell,, AAP, February 27, 2013 12:30PM

A SELF-styled Muslim cleric has lost a High Court case, arguing he had the right to send offensive letters to the parents of soldiers killed in Afghanistan.

Man Monis, also known as Sheik Haron, and Amirah Droudis were charged with 13 counts of using the postal service to offend relatives of fallen diggers and a trade official killed by a terrorist bomb in Jakarta.

The letters, which were sent between 2007 and 2009, started with condolences, but the NSW Appeal Court found that they referred “to the deceased soldiers in a denigrating and derogatory fashion”.

The six judges were evenly divided on ruling on the appeal, so the decision reverted to the NSW Appeal Court’s decision, which ruled against Mr Monis.

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Court orders flogging of alleged rape victim
ABC News, Wed. Feb 27, 2013 9:40pm AEDT

A Maldives court has sentenced a 15-year-old alleged rape victim to 100 lashes and house arrest after she admitted having premarital sex in a separate incident.

During a police probe into allegations the girl had been raped by her stepfather, investigators uncovered evidence that she had had consensual sex with another man.

“Though she has been sentenced she will be lashed once she turns 18,” the court official, who asked not to be named, told AFP.

“The sentence will be enforced immediately if she wants it to be carried out now.”

Premarital sex is illegal under the Indian Ocean nation’s strict Islamic law.

The child’s stepfather faces up to 25 years in prison if convicted of rape and a murder charge, after he allegedly killed a baby which resulted from his alleged rape of his stepdaughter.

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Bigots demand death for top bloggers
The Daily Star (Bangladesh), Tuesday, February 19, 2013

A few hundred people staged a rally in Hathazari upazila headquarters in Chittagong Tuesday afternoon demanding death penalty for top bloggers of the ongoing Shahbagh movement.

The bigots further threatened of tougher movement if the bloggers were not punished as they demanded.

“They are active online for several years defaming Islam and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) through their writings,” Maulana Jahangir Alam, upazila unit general secretary of Bangladesh Khelafat Andolon, told The Daily Star.

Hefazate-e-Islam, meanwhile, announced it would hold a mass rally at Hathazari Parbati High School on February 25 to press home the same demand.

During Tuesday’s demonstration, the speakers specifically demanded deaths for Omi Rahman Pial, Ibrahim Khalil, Arif Jebtik and Asif Mohiuddin who are at the forefront of the Shahbagh movement that continued for the 15th straight day on Tuesday in demand of capital punishment to the war criminals.

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Furious debate as teachers at Islamic College of SA’s West Croydon campus ordered to wear hijab or face sack
Investigations Editor Bryan Littlely, adelaidenow, February 13, 201312:00AM

An Adelaide Islamic school wants its teachers to wear the hijab for school functions, or they could be sacked.

TWO female teachers from the Islamic College of South Australia have gone to court to fight against being unfairly dismissed based, in part, on their attire being considered inappropriate.

The teachers were sacked last year by the West Croydon school, which issued a warning to all female teachers – Muslim and non-Muslim – to wear a hijab head scarf or face the sack.

One of the teachers has taken a case of unfair dismissal to the civil court while the other’s claim is being heard by Fair Work Australia.

School principal Kadir Emniyet yesterday defended the school’s policy, which he said he had discussed with all 42 teachers. He said “90 per cent of them are happy to adhere to the policy”.

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What’s God got to do with it?  Remove religions’ right to discriminate
To: The Hon Julia Gillard MP, Senator the Hon Penny Wong, the Hon Nicola Roxson MP, the Hon Tanya Plibersek MP
Campaign created by Kimberley Ivory – January 2013

Dear Prime Minister and Cabinet Ministers

You are to be commended for consolidating and expanding the breadth of Australia’s Human Rights and Anti-Discrimination legislation. Without doubt this is an important step in making Australia a fairer place for all.

However, in order to do real justice to this progressive legislative, we believe the Government must also take this opportunity to remove the ‘right’ of religious groups to discriminate without justification against those they deem to ‘offend their religious sensibilities’. This ‘right’ is afforded to no other group and the grounds on which this ‘right’ is demanded by and provided to such groups are unclear.

See petition

Muslim protests fizzle on the steps of the State Library in central Melbourne
Michelle Ainsworth, Herald Sun, September 23, 2012

A SERIES of planned protests around Melbourne against the anti-Islamic film Innocence of Muslims fizzled today, with police reporting low numbers and no serious incidents.

Right-wing protesters met at the State Library and briefly argued with one Muslim man, but were outnumbered by police.

A planned protest was cancelled earlier this week after organisers spoke with police.

Two people were given banning notices, preventing them from being in the CBD for 24 hours, at Flinders St station, where so called “pro-Australian” protesters were urged to “come ready for battle” before heading to the library.

Four men in “proudly atheist” T-shirts and carrying signs saying “Islam is false” had a fiery debate with pro-Islamic supporters about 1pm.

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Relative calm across Melbourne and Sydney after anti-Islam film storm
Michelle Ainsworth and AAP, AAP, Herald Sun, September 23, 2012

NSW and Victorian police have contained religious protests in each state today.

An argument erupted in Melbourne between men wearing SS Nazi insignias, young men draped in Australian flags, placard-waving atheists and a Muslim couple.

But the argument was a rare incident, with authorities across Australia largely applauding the restraint shown after last week’s violence.

Angry members of Sydney’s Muslim community clashed with police last weekend, as protests sparked by an anti-Islamic film on YouTube erupted around the world.

Sydney’s Muslim community leaders later condemned the violence, which resulted in 11 arrests.

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Rethinking Islamic Reform: Hamza Yusuf & Tariq Ramadan At Oxford University
TheHamzaYusufChannel | Published on 16 Aug 2012

The now famous and groundbreaking 2010 conference held in the Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford University, with speeches delivered by Sheikh Hamza Yusuf and academic Tariq Ramadan, followed by a Q&A.

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Human Rights in Islam
LECTURE – Sh. Hussain Yee – PCS.  Published on 1 May 2012

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26th April 2012 | THE HON JOE HOCKEY MP



Like many Australians with olive skin I often get asked about my heritage. And I always get a puzzled look from people when I say that my father was born in Bethlehem.

They tend to skirt around the question of what that means because they expect someone who is part Palestinian to be a Muslim.

They often don’t know how to breach the subject of faith and how to deal with the issue of cultural diversity.

This inquisitive shyness is understandable. For those of us who have grown up in culturally diverse homes it is somewhat amusing.

As a young boy, every Sunday was dedicated to our extended family get togethers.

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How do I convince my husband not to take a second wife?
Q&A – Sh. Hussain Yee.  Published on 1 Apr 2012

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The burka is an alien, cultural monstrosity…. and it CAN be banned in Britain
By DR TAJ HARGEY | UPDATED: 23:26 AEST, 12 April 2011

The decision by the French government to outlaw all forms of public face-masking, including the burka and niqab, is welcomed by all thinking Muslims around the world.

The Muslim Educational Centre of Oxford which has pioneered an enlightened and egalitarian Islam salutes France for its bold legislative steps to eradicate this hideous tribal dress code that is deliberately given a completely false veneer of Islam.

However, since Britain tackles social problems in its own particular way and has different ways of doing things, the scourge of this foreign face-masking fad that is unfortunately growing in popularity in the Muslim community has to be confronted imaginatively and not exclusively through legal channels.

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Sharia Law for the non-Muslim
Center for the study of political Islam, by Bill Warner
Copyright 2010, published by cspi, llc,, printed in the usa

Table of Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
What is Sharia?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Family law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Kafir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Jihad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Dualism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
The Dhimmi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Slavery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Freedom of ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Sharia finance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Demands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Reading list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

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